WONG Wai Ching Angela 黃慧貞

Research Projects


  • Chinese Christian Women in Hong Kong
  • WONG Wai Ching Angela, LEE Chi Chung Archie
    1 April 2000
    The Council for World Mission

    Christian women constitute a highly interesting group in Hong Kong because of the latter's past hundredyear peculiar political setup. However, including the one on the Western women in early Colonial period, there are only a few historical or sociopolitical studies about them. With regard to the activities of Chinese Christian women in Hong Kong, almost nothing is written on them except the initial works done by Carl T. Smith. This situation is most unfortunate for two reasons. First, Chinese Christian women constituted a major force among early women's movement in Hong Kong. Until recently, Chinese Christian women as a collective are highly active in some of the most controversial local social and political debate. Second, from the beginning, Chinese Christian women's activities have always been set against an unique background of Hong Kong being a colony of a Christian nation (until 1997) and yet its population remained predominantly Chinese. Like all of the other Hong Kong Christians, they have been placed in a position between striving to be faithful to a religion of the colonizer while maintaining loyalty toward their nation during a century when China underwent series of political turbulence. For those women who are conscious of it, the struggle between dual identities have been doubled if we take into the consideration of women's assigned role and status in Chinese society. Consequently, a study of the activities of Hong Kong Christian women could lead us to an understanding of how the question of gender has entangled with the antagonistic rhetoric of colonialism and nationalism in the history of Hong Kong. (AL20007)


  • Chinese Women and Hong Kong Christianity: An Oral History
  • WONG Wai Ching Angela, CHOI Po King Dora (Educational Administration & Policy)
    1 January 2007
    Research Grants Council (Earmarked Grants)

    This project aims at studying the life and world as experienced by Christian women in Hong Kong by way of doing an oral history. This study focuses on Chinese Protestant and Catholic women who are aged 65 years or above who have been active in the churches and society of Hong Kong.1 These may include women pastors, evangelists, and lay leaders in the congregation or of church sponsored or related organizations, nurtured and educated primarily in Hong Kong after World War II. Because of the unique position of the churches and Christian education in the colonial government, Christian women had served at the forefront of society on the legislature (e.g. Ellen Li 李曹秀群, the first Chinese woman legislator), education (e.g. Luzhao junhong 陸趙鈞鴻,2 champion of curriculum reform in pre-school and primary education), social service (e.g. Gao Tiaohua 高苕華, General Secretary of YWCA for three decades), and Christian ministry (e.g. Li Qingci 李清詞, the first woman ordained in Hong Kong) of Hong Kong; many served as school principals, teachers, community leaders and lay leaders in the churches and Christian organizations. Their influence and contribution to the development of gender equality, women’s education, social and family policy in Hong Kong have been unfathomable. This project aims at collecting oral reports from these women of various backgrounds on questions pertaining to their experience at the crossroads of Chinese cultural values and Western Christianity and the impact of which on the role and status of women in postwar Hong Kong. Most important, the oral reports of these women will fill a lacuna of not only the women’s history in Hong Kong Christianity but also the history of Hong Kong itself. As some of these eldest women gradually passed away, the timing of the project is most urgent.
    1 According to span style="font-family: DFKai-SB; font-size: 12pt">《2004 香港基督教教會普查簡報》
    , an annual survey of Hong Kong Protestant Churches published by the Movement for Hong Kong Church Renewal this year, there are 246,545 Christian residents in 2004, of which about 61.5% are women. The age group of 65 and above consists of 26,251 (11.9%). Assuming that the female to male ratio slightly exceeds the average at 65:35 in the elderly groups, the number of Christian women who are aged 65 or above is 17,063. span style="font-family: DFKai-SB; font-size: 12pt"> (胡志偉,霍安琪 2005)
    2 Chinese names will be transliterated into pin-yin for consistency of this proposal. (CU06579)


  • Christian Right and the Discourse of Family
  • WONG Wai Ching Angela
    1 April 2007
    CUHK Research Committee Funding (Direct Grants)

    “Family” in Asia has always been an important topic. It is often taken as one of the most essential pillars defining Asian cultures. Nevertheless, modernity, a process resulted from rigorous modernization, has challenged, among other things, most fundamentally past conceptions and ways of organizing families. Subsequently, the anxiety of “families falling apart” has prompted traditionalists of particularly the religious sector to initiate a global profamily movement in “rescue” of the “family”. In support of major legislative debate in some countries, the battle has been fought discursively on an ethical moral ground focusing on school education, sexuality and women. In 1997, World Congress of Families (WCF), an American Christian based platform, professes to build a global alliance across religions and cultures to promote and establish the sole legitimacy of a “natural family” that is life-long monogamous, heterosexual, and procreative. In 2004, Hong Kong Alliance for Family (HKAF0 was set up and introduced the same ethical and moral campaign to the conception and practice of family work in schools and social welfare sectors where Christians have a strong presence. And yet when Mozi says by the end of 200 BCE that “ruling a nation of Tianxia (the world) is likened to ruling of one jia (family)”, he has already declared that “family” is by no means a private and moral matter. This project aims to deconstruct the ethical and moral discourse of family in religious fundamentalists on the global platform such as WCF and analyze its effect on the public debate of family in Hong Kong. (AL06992)


  • History in the Gaps and the Silences: Narrating Women Life Stories
  • WONG Wai Ching Angela
    1 June 2004
    CUHK Research Committee Funding (Direct Grants)

    This project will be a study expanding on my preliminary study on the three women oral histories in Hong Kong. The three texts include Wanwan liudianben (晚晚六點半:七十年代上夜校的女工) , coordinated and edited by Choi Po King in 1998; Yaukan yauxiao : apor koushu lishi (又喊又笑:阿婆口述歷史) , edited by Tsang Kar Yin and Ng Chun Hung in 2001; and the most recent, Shiliu plus : Xiaonu koushu lishi (十六+少女口述歷史) , also edited by Tsang ND Ng in 2002. Built on some initial findings, the project will cover other oral histories projects on women including those of the sexual minorities and sexwork as well. Together with the abovementioned works, the emerging texts of oral histories provide not only exceptional oral materials about women lives across a wide range of age and experience, but also very rich textual basis for critical analysis of feminist writings. The project shall involve collection of published oral histories and interviewing of interviewers and writers of these oral histories. Its research will primarily be a critical analysis of these texts focusing on their production process and the purposes they are supposed to serve. Using discourse analysis and feminist literary criticisms as the primary tools, the study is expected to show how women oral histories contribute to a feminist strategy of building effective communities by means if cultivating women communities and re-inscribing of the “voices of the minority” into public memory of Hong Kong community. (AL03735)


  • A Study on the Working Condition of Male and Female Church Workers in Hong Kong
  • WONG Wai Ching Angela, NGO Hang Yue (Dept of Management)
    1 May 2001
    Hong Kong Christian Council

    In view of increasing public awareness in the need for gender equity in Hong Kong, more Christian churches have taken more progressive measures in appointing women to various administrative or executive positions including ordained priesthood that were formerly closed to them. However, according to some previous surveys done by "Christian Times" and the Church Renewal Movement, there are still not a small number of women being excluded from preaching at the pulpit, administering holy communion, or taking part in the top administrative and/or executive responsibilites. There are still churches who declare openly that they have difficulties accepting women into the ordained ministry. This posts difficulties for women seeking gender equity within the context of the Christian community, despite the general acceptance of direction in society.
    According to a survey of 1999, women take up about sixty percent of all paid positions in the church including both full time and part time workers. However, women who work on "top" levels of the Church including both ordained or not amount to only less than 10%. The goal of this study is therefore to find out the general working conditions of church workers in Hong Kong and to draw a comparison between men and women workers. This study will include a survey of the workers' opinion on job satisfaction, fairness of the system and whether gender stereotypes, exist and affect their work. The preliminary result will be further reviewed in focus groups and a deep analysis of Churches' practice in gender equity will be attempted. (BS00845)


  • Study on Women’s Development in Hong Kong in the 20th Century
  • CHEUNG Fanny Mui Ching, WONG Wai Ching Angela (Cultural and Religious Studies), YIP Hon Ming (History)
    11 May 2007
    Health, Welfare and Food Bureau

    The study is commissioned by Women’s Commission (WoC) to identify and analyse the major issues of women’s development in the 20th century, including the recent development after the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region (SS06909)



Research Publications


  • "Negotiating Gender Identity: Postcolonialism and Hong Kong Christian Women". Gender and Change in Hong Kong: Globalization, Postcolonialism and Chinese Patriarchy ed. by Eliza W. Y. Lee. 1 ed. pp.151-176. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2003.09.



  • 〈在殖民主義與國族主義之間-亞洲基督徒婦女的神學定位和遠景〉,《中國神學研究院期刊》 專題:性-角色.文化.信仰 第31 期,香港特別行政區:中國神學研究院,2001.07,頁 39-51。



  • 《香港敎會男女敎牧同工事奉實況硏究 : 簡要報告》(與敖恆宇合編),香港:香港基督敎協進會,2002。
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL HK Studies BV676 .A6 2002)



  • 《婦女經驗與婦女牧養》(與黃慧賢及蘇敏幗合編),香港:香港婦女基督徒協會,2003。
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL HK Studies BV4527 .F83 2003; CC Reserve 4 hours BV4527 .F83 2003 c.2)


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