LAM Chi Chung 林智中

Research Projects


  • Conditions of Professional Practices in Hong Kong Secondary Schools: Does Subject Pedagogy Matter at all?
  • YEUNG Sau Chu Alison, LAM Chi Chung, MAN Yee Fun Evelyn
    1 Ap ril 2003
    CUHK Research Committee Funding (Direct Grants)

    This proposed project is shaped by a broad question: What are the conditions of professional practices in Hong Kong secondary schools and how do these conditions affect teaching and learning? We plan to answer the specific research question of how subject teachers build on the strength of their subject pedagogy and how they find their subject pedagogy relevant to teaching assignment outside their specialization. In other words, we want to know whether and how teachers display different teaching styles in their own specialized subject and non-specialized subject. This close relationship between teaching assignment and subject pedagogy is crucial to the conditions of teaching effectiveness and quality in Hong Kong secondary schools. As teacher educators, we want to address problems of real classroom situations in Hong Kong and we believe a qualitative research methodology will allow us to engage in deeper reflection and thorough discussion. We therefore plan to observe, video-tape lessons by twenty teachers specializing either in languages and humanities, and then interview them on the relationship between teaching styles and “pedagogical content knowledge” they develop in different subjects. This exploratory study is our first step toward a more comprehensive research project on teaching effectiveness in Hong Kong secondary schools. (ED02988)


  • The Effect of Spiral Bianshi Mathematics Curriculum on Students’ Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: A Case Study of “Statistics” in Primary 5
  • LAM Chi Chung, WONG Ngai Ying
    20 December 2006
    CUHK Research Committee Funding (Direct Grants)

    The research aims to explore the effect of spiral bianshi mathematics curriculum on the teaching of statistics" for Primary 5 students in Hong Kong, including the facets of cognitive learning outcomes, affective learning outcomes, conceptions of mathematics and problem solving abilities. Spiral bianshi mathematics curriculum is adapted from bianshi mathematics teaching developed by Gu (1981) in Shanghai. Spiral bianshi mathematics curriculum comprises four types of bianshi problems, the inductive bianshi, the broadening bianshi, the deepening bianshi and the applicative bianshi. It is argued that spiral bianshi curriculum can provide systematic introduction of variations of mathematics problems.
    Based on the theoretical framework of spiral bianshi curriculum, sample lesson plans, together with teaching material, on the teaching of statistics for Primary 5 students will be developed. The concepts, knowledge and skills covered will be based on Hong Kong mathematics curriculum
    A quasi-experimental design is adopted in this research. The teaching materials will be tried out in three local (Hong Kong) primary schools. A pre-test and post-test of academic performance will be administered to monitor changes in the students’ understanding of the concepts that are taught, their ability to tackle the mathematical problems covered in the curriculum, their competence in tackling open-ended questions, their learning approaches and their sense of self-efficacy towards mathematics. Three schools with similar student intakes will be invited to be the reference group. (ED06654)


  • Enhancement of Students’ Mathematics Problem Solving Abilities by the Systematic Introduction of Variations
  • WONG Ngai Ying, LAM Chi Chung, LEUNG Shuk Kwan Susan#, MARTON Ference*, WONG Ka Ming Patrick, LEUNG Shuk Kwan Susan*
    1 August 2001
    Research Grants Council (Earmarked Grants)

    Hong Kong students, while found in international comparative studies to outperform their Western counterparts in computational problems, perform less brilliantly in non-conventional, non-routine mathematical problems. Research revealed that local students generally held narrow views about mathematics. To them, mathematics is a set of rules for computation, and solving mathematical problems is the search for appropriate routine procedures by identifying the problem type. In fact, students approaches to mathematical problems are greatly influenced by their views of mathematics, which are, in turn, largely shaped by their experiences in learning, task demands, and classroom environment. In our view, the most critical aspect of learning is the kind of classroom tasks given, because they define for the students what counts as learning and what mathematics is. This project, which involves eight Secondary One classes for one academic year, is an experimental attempt to enable students to deal with mathematical problems in more flexible manners, by way of widening their learning experience through the introduction of systematic variations of critical features of classroom examples and tasks. Participating teachers’ understanding of the theory and practice of more novel, open-ended mathematical problems will be developed. Tasks given to students will largely be drawn from a collective pool developed by these teachers. At the end of the project, students’ problem-solving abilities will be evaluated. Changes in the views of mathematics and of mathematics learning among participating teachers and students will also be investigated. Phenomenography offers a theoretical framework and a natural methodological means for this investigation. (ED01333)


  • OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA): The Hong Kong Trial Study of PISA 2003
  • HO Sui Chu, WONG Ka Ming Patrick (Dept of Curriculum & Instruction), LAM Chi Chung (Dept of Curriculum & Instruction)
    1 March 2002
    CUHK Research Committee Funding (Direct Grants)

    The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a new regular survey of 15-year olds assessing their preparedness for adult life. The PISA programme was launched in 1997 by the OECD with the objective to develop regular, reliable and policy relevant indicators on student achievement. The data strategy defines three cycles of the projects: PISA 2000 focusing on reading literacy, PISA 2003 focusing on mathematical literacy and finally PISA 2006 focusing on scientific literacy. HKPISA 2000 is being successfully implemented by the Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research, of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. PISA 2003 constitutes the second cycle of the project, which will be conducted in 2002-2004.
    The purpose of the HKPISA 2003 trial study is to continue the investigation of HKPISA2000 and develop a longitudinal database for the study of several problems confronting the youth in Hong Kong secondary schools. Specifically, the study attempts to investigate: (1) relationships between student performance (including reading literacy, mathematics literacy and science literacy) and school factors such as the quality of the school.s human and social resources, funding and decision making mechanisms; (2) differences in achievement patterns within countries; between schools as well as the extent to which schools influence the relationship between students. performance and the economic, social and cultural capital of their families.
    The study will parallel the second cycle of PISA study conducted by the OECD in over 40 countries. This international study can extend our knowledge on the effectiveness of Hong Kong basic education by establishing a timely, longitudinal, and multilevel database. The full project can provide direction for schools instruction efforts and for students. learning as well as insights into curriculum strengths and weaknesses. They also provide tools for central authorities to monitor achievement levels especially when administration is developed and schools are being run in partnership with communities. The fund requested in this application are for a trial study to accomplish the following steps: (1) construct the sample design,: (2) translation of questionnaires and assessments; (3) field test the student questionnaire and assessment in 30 schools; and (4) prepare for the main study of HKPISA2003. Following this pilot study, funds from QEF and RGC will be sought to the full study. (ED01768)


  • Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 in Hong Kong
  • HO Sui Chu, LO Nai Kwai Leslie, CHUNG Yue Ping Stephen, TSANG Wing Kwong, WONG Ka Ming Patrick (Dept of Curriculum & Instruction), LAM Chi Chung (Dept of Curriculum & Instruction), YIP Din Yan (Dept of Curriculum & Instruction), CHIU Ming Ming (Dept of Educational Psychology), CHUN Ka Wai Cecilia (Dept of Curriculum & Instruction), SZE Man Man Paul (Dept of Curriculum & Instruction), MAN Yee Fun Evelyn (Dept of Curriculum & Instruction)
    1 April 2002
    Education Department, Hong Kong SAR Government

    The programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a regular survey of 15-year olds assessing their preparedness for adult life. The OECD, with the objective to develop regular, reliable and policy relevant indicators on student achievement, launched the PISA programme in 1997. There are three cycles of the project: PISA 2000 focusing on reading literacy, PISA 2003 focusing on mathematical literacy and finally PISA 2006 focusing on scientific literacy. HKPISA 2000 is being successfully implemented in Hong Kong by the Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research of The Chinese University of Hong Kong. HKPISA 2003 constitutes the second cycle of the project, which is supported by The Chinese University of Hong Kong in preparing the field trial in 2002. The HKPISA 2003 study will be conducted in 2003-2006 in over forty countries. The purpose of the HKPISA 2003 study is to develop a longitudinal database for the study of several problems confronting 15-year old youths in Hong Kong secondary schools. The result of the study will extend our understanding of the cumulative yield of the education system for students who will nearly finish their basic compulsory education in Hong Kong. Moreover, the cross-cultural, multilevel and longitudinal design of the study will extend the literature on school effectiveness and will be useful to policy-makers, school administrators, teachers, parents and students. (ED01712)


  • Utilizing GIS in School Geography: Education Software Development for Secondary Students in Hong Kong
  • FUNG Tung, LAM Chi Chung (Curriculum & Instruction)
    1 September 2005
    Quality Education Fund, HKSAR Government

    Geographic Information System has become a tool widely used in geographical studies. After the implementation of IT in education reform initiative, all secondary schools have had the hardware for utilizing GIS in the teaching and learning geography. Moreover, the teaching of GIS has been included in the proposed senior secondary curriculum to be implemented in 2008. The objectives of the project are (1) to develop GIS educational software for enhancing teaching and learning effectiveness in school geography; (2) to arouse students. awareness of the strengths of GIS in tackling geographical questions and (3) to inculcate in teachers and students positive attitudes towards using IT in geographical education. The software developed will help students to better understand on (a) the causes and solution to transport problems; (b) the influence of relief on rainfall and vegetation cover and (c) the flow of a river in Hong Kong. The effectiveness of the software will be assessed by means of questionnaires and workshops. (ED05858)



Research Publications


  • "Architectures of mathematics beliefs: Individual and school-level differences among Hong Kong Primary 6 students". (co-authored with CHIU Ming Ming, WONG Ngai Ying, WONG Ka Ming Patrick, LEUNG Ks Frederick and MOK Ac Ida) Educational Research Journal vol.20 no.1, Hong Kong, 2005.07. pp.27-55.



  • "Changing the Curriculum: The Impact of Reform on Primary Schooling in Hong Kong" (in Chinese),《基礎教育學報》,麥肖玲編,第9卷/第10卷,第2期/第1期,香港:香港中文大學香港教育研究所,2000,頁149-150。



  • "The effects of spiral bianshi curriculum: a case study of the teaching of speed for Primary 6 students in Hong Kong.". (co-authored with CHAN Anna Mei-yan and WONG Ngai Ying) Paper presented in the 4th East Asia Regional Conference on Mathematical Education, organized by Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, 2007.06. pp.6.



  • Geography Fieldwork Guide. (co-authored with Yeung Pun Ki and Yeung Kam Chuen) Hong Kong: Hong Kong Geographical Association, 2003.



  • "Hong Kong Geographical Educational Research in Teacher Education". (co-authored with LEE Chi Kin John) International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education vol.12 no.3, Clevedon, Great Britain: Channel View Publications, 2003.12. pp.263-267.
    (CUHK Library Call No: CC Periodical G72 .I58 v.12, 2003; Available Online)



  • "How do Hong Kong Students Think about Mathematics". (co-authored with WONG Ngai Ying, WONG Ka Ming Patrick, LEUNG Koon Shing and MOK Ah Chee) EduMath vol.16. Hong Kong, 2003.06. pp.7-21.
    (CUHK Library Call No: CC Periodical QA14.H6 S47 no.14-17, 2002-03)



  • "How Do Hong Kong Students Think about the Mathematics Curriculum and Teaching". (co-authored with WONG Ngai Ying, WONG Ka Ming Patrick, LEUNG Frederick Koon-shing and MOK Ida Ah-chee) EduMath vol.15 Hong Kong SAR, 2002.12.
    (CUHK Library Call No: CC Periodical QA14.H6 S47 no.14-17, 2002-03)



  • "Implementation of Geographic Information System (GIS) in secondary geography curriculum in Hong Kong: Current situations and future directions". (co-authored with Edith Lai and WONG Lai-yin Janice) International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education., 2008.



  • "The malfunctioning of the curriculum policy-making system in Hong Kong: A case study of curriculum integration ". (co-authored with YEUNG Sze Yin Shirley) International Journal of Educational Reformvol.15 no.3, 2006. pp.400-423.
    (CUHK Library Call No: CC Periodical L11.I63 v.15, 2006)



  • "Parents’ Beliefs and Practices in Education in Confucian Heritage Culture: The Hong Kong Case". (co-authored with WONG Ngai Ying and HO Sui Chu) Journal of Southeast Asian Education vol.3 no.1, 2002.06. pp.99-115.



  • "The Romance and Reality of Policy-making and Implementation: A Case Study of the Target Oriented Curriculum in Hong Kong". Journal of Education Policy vol.18 no.6, The United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 2003.12. pp.641-655.
    (CUHK Library Call No: CC Periodical LC73 .J68 v.18, 2003; Available Online)



  • "Teachers’ cultural differences: Case studies of geography teachers in Brisbane, Changchun and Hong Kong". (co-authored with LIDSTONE John) Asia Pacific Education Review vol.8 no.2, Korea, South: Seoul National University, 2007.08. pp.178-193.
    (CUHK Library Call No: Available Online)



  • "Toward Online Learning: The Hong Kong Perspective". (co-authored with LEE Fong Lok)Education Technology vol.XLIII no.3, Englewood Cliffs, USA, 2003.05. pp.16-22.



  • "The use of IT in secondary geography teaching in Hong Kong". Paper presented in the Symposium Proceedings of IGU Commission on Geographical Education: Expanding horizons in a shrinking world, 269-274 pgs. Glasgow, U.K, 2004.



  • 《目標為本課程 : 一個遥不可及的理想》(與香港中文大學香港敎育硏究所合編),香港:香港中文大學香港敎育硏究所,1996。
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL HK Studies LB2806.15 .L5 1996)



  • 《目標為本課程 : 設計與實施》,香港:天地圖書有限公司,1997。
    (CUHK Library Call No: CC LB2806.15 .M8 1997)



  • 《全語文課程發展與評鑑報告》(與蘇國平合編),香港:語文敎育及硏究常務委員會,1997。
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL Gov Document LB1139.5.L35 L55 1997)



  • 《如此也可敎》,香港:進一步多媒體有限公司,2000。
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL HK Studies LB1607.53.H85 L56 2000 c.2; CC LB1607.53.H85 L56 2000 c.3; CC Reserve 4 hours LB1607.53.H85 L56 2000)



  • 《自由之路 : 一間傳統名校的學習生活》,香港:進一步多媒體有限公司,2004。
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL HK Studies LB3605 .L65 2004; CC Reserve 4 hours LB3605 .L65 2004 c.2; CC Reserve 1 day LB3605 .L65 2004 c.3)



  • 《活學地理》(與葉劍威及黃錦輝合著),香港:牛津大學出版社(中國)有限公司,1999。
    (CUHK Library Call No: CC G128 .Y44 1999 v.1; CC G128 .Y44 1999 v.2; CC G128 .Y44 1999 v.3 c.3)



  • 〈香港小學生的數學觀〉 (與黃毅英、黃家鳴及羅浩源合著),《小學數學教師》 第172卷,中國上海,2004.05,頁69-72。



  • 《香港地理人》(與李可儀、楊本基及楊錦泉合編),第17卷第1期,2000.11。



  • 《香港地理人》(與李可儀、楊本基及楊錦泉合編),第17卷第2期,香港: Hong Kong Geographical Association, 2001.02.



  • 〈香港初中地理課程設計的前瞻性〉(與張銳明合著),《地理教學》,2002年九月號,中國上海:中國教育學會地理教學研討會,2002.09,頁8-10。



  • 〈香港教師數學觀的研究〉 (與韓繼偉、黃毅英、黃家鳴及王倩婷合著),《「香港數學教育會議-02」論文集》,香港:中文大學及香港數學教育學會,2002.06.25。 /li>


  • 《香港課程改革 : 新時代的需要硏討會論文集》,香港:香港中文大學課程與敎學學系:香港敎育署課程發展處,1994。
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL HK Studies LB1564.H6 C67 1994)



  • 〈從建議的高中地理課程看香港課程改革〉,《現代教育通訊》,第56 期,香港,2000.12,頁21-22。



  • 《通識教育與心靈教育 : 兩個風馬牛不相及的概念?》,香港:香港教育學院宗教教育與心靈教育中心,2008。
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL HK Studies LC273.C5 L55 2008)



  • 《評「香港課程改革2001--《學會學習》」》(與鄭鈞傑合編),香港:香港中文大學敎育學院:香港中文大學香港敎育硏究所,2002。
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL HK Studies LB2806.15 .Z56 2002 c.2; CC LB2806.15 .Z56 2002)



  • 〈照顧個別差異—香港與英格蘭的經驗〉(與馬雲鵬合著),《課程研究》 總第29期(2001年第3期),中國北京:中央教育科學研究所,2001.10,頁12-14。



  • 《對《敎統會第七號報告書》的回應》(與侯傑泰及陳玉楷合著),香港:香港中文大學香港敎育硏究所,1997。
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL HK Studies LA1134.H6 H68 1997 c.3; CC LA1134.H6 H68 1997)



  • 《課程統整效能的研究 : 批判性的文獻回顧》(與張爽,合著),香港:香港中文大學教育學院:香港中文大學香港教育硏究所,2004。
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL HK Studies LB2806.15 .Z55 2004; CC Reserve 4 hours LB2806.15 .Z55 2004 c.2; CC Reserve 1 day LB2806.15 .Z55 2004 c.3)



  • 《變式課程設計原理 : 數學課程改革的可能出路》(與黃毅英及孫旭花合著),香港:香港中文大學教育學院:香港中文大學香港教育研究所,2006。
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL QA14.H6 H8 2006; UL HK Studies QA14.H6 H8 2006 c.4)


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