FUNG Tung 馮通

Research Projects


  • Characterization of Low Flows for Water Resources Management in the East River (Dongjiang) Basin
  • CHEN Yongqin David, CHEN Min-jian*, FUNG Tung, LEUNG Yee, SHAO Quanxi*, XIA Jun*
    1 December 2003
    Research Grants Council (Earmarked Grants)

    Water resources in the East River basin have been highly developed and heavily committed for a variety of uses such as water supply, hydropower, navigation, irrigation, and suppression of seawater invasion. In recent years the East River provides supply to meet about 80% of Hong Kong’s annual water demands. Low-flow conditions and hydrologic droughts are obviously very crucial to the reliability and vulnerability of the East River water resources systems to satisfy the multiple objectives of water uses. This study is therefore proposed to employ hydrologic analysis methods for low-flow characterization and modeling techniques for optimization of water resources systems under low-flow conditions. This research will advance the state-of–the–art of low-flow hydrology through studies for developing and applying a variety of techniques and models (both statistical and analytical) to characterize and estimate low-flow regimes. Two techniques, frequency analysis and baseflow recession analysis, will be performed to characterize low flows in terms of minimum average-streamflow rates and the associated probability distributions. To estimate low-flow statistics at ungauged sited, this study will adopt a regional hydrologic modeling approach to developing statistical relationships (both ordinary regression and geographically weighted regression) between low-flow statistics at gauged sites and a number of drainage basin characteristics derived from maps and remote sensing images. Finally, impacts of low flows on water quality and other water uses will be assessed and, multi-objective programming techniques will be applied to optimize water resources systems for the formulation of management strategies and plans. This study will not only have tremendous scientific merits, but also highly valuable practical significance and enormous relevance to Hong Kong. (CU03247)


  • Community Perception of Landscapes : Investigating Structures and Functions
  • MARAFA Lawal Mohammed, CHAU Kwai Cheong, FUNG Tung
    7 January 2007
    CUHK Research Committee Funding (Direct Grants)

    Community perceptions of landscapes have metamorphosed from simply viewing them as appearances of land with natural and cultural values to seeing them as tangible units with structure and functions. This view gives character to a place and thus characterizes the way the public and decision-makers react to such places. Where landscapes are open and prone to various impacts of development, there are consequences of land use changes that can affect the perceived structure and function of such landscapes. As most decisions on landscapes will be based to some extent on their structure or function, this study intend to 1) investigate the multi-functional aspects of landscapes; 2) will seek to understand their values and functions in a human-environment interface; and 3) will integrate such data and results for visualization and consequently explore the land use change through participatory system using geographical tools. In order to achieve the objectives enumerated and the integration of results, the study will focus on the landscapes in the selected country parks of the New Territories in Hong Kong. The New Territories is an attractive area that is generating attention to policy makers and general public as it is slated for further development. As this study unfolds, it helps reseachers, planners and decision makers in identifying the need for integration, and the relationships that are centred around human-environment interface. The research will hopefully pave the way for producing an earmarked research grant application. (SS06707)


  • Consultancy Study to Analyze Broad Land Use Pattern in Hong Kong
  • FUNG Tung, NG Sai Leung
    10 October 2000
    Planning Department, HKSAR Government

    This project aims at providing an analysis of the broad land use pattern of Hong Kong through an integration of satellite images, existing digital databases and orthophotographs. By broad land use pattern, it denotes land use information to be generated at a scale of 1:75,000. The land use information to be produced includes a Land Utilisation Plan together with a Land Usage Table. The Land Utilisation Plan depicts the spatial distribution of land uses whilst the Land Usage Table shows the statistical summaries of land uses. The project duration is 5 months. Within this short period of time, this project makes use of advanced and appropriate remote sensing digital image analysis and change detection technologies together with geographic information systems to produce the Plan and Table cost-effectively. (SS20010)


  • Effects of Health Scare on Outdoor Recreation and Leisure Trends: Lessons from the SARS Outbreak
  • MARAFA Lawal Mohammed, FUNG Tung
    21 March 2004
    CUHK Research Committee Funding (Direct Grants)

    In a densely populated urban environment like Hong Kong, most people maintain a buoyant and healthy lifestyle part of which involves leisure and recreation. At the onset of the SARS pandemic, people became psychologically apprehensive of the normal trends of daily life. Crowds were avoided, shopping malls and plazas were deserted, and people spent most of their free time indoors and had literally nowhere to go. As time went bye, the alternative leisure and recreation activity was engaging in outdoor recreation in the countryside and open spaces.
    In the period of SARS there was fear, alienation, frustration and most people felt insecure. In a situation of psychological trauma, leisure and recreation are believed to have beneficial consequences for improving psychological well-being and health particularly when this is done in the outdoors. For people to continue to enjoy the outdoors and maintain a buoyant and healthy lifestyle, there is the need to understand how the outbreak affected leisure activities in the local context.
    As a sense of normality returned to the city, open spaces in both rural and urban areas became beehives that attracted large number of visitors. As a result, the hitherto quiet countryside of Hong Kong (and particularly the New Territories) suddenly became alternative destinations and this trend deserves further attention. Understanding the trend of participation in leisure and recreation in the aftermath of SARS will help to elucidate the overall community response to the menace of SARS. What is the status of leisure in Hong Kong family life? How did the SARS episode interfere with family recreation patterns? What is the role of leisure and recreation in the psyche of people at a time of an unknown health scare? Some of these questions will be addressed in this study. The study will therefore investigate the changing trends to people’s participation in outdoor recreation and identify what factors (if any) have influenced people’s participation in leisure activities. (SS03376)


  • Provision of Service for 1-Day Training on 3DEIA and Noise Mapping
  • LAI Pong Wai, LAM Kin Che, CHOI Kai Hang, FUNG Tung
    1 January 2005
    Environmental Protection Department, HKSAR Government

    Overall Objectives:
    - To provide training for HKSAR Government officers on GIS and applications for 3D Environmental Impact Assessment and Noise Mapping. The Department of Geography and Resource Management of CUHK has been working together with the Environmental Protection Department of HKSAR Government on research in the development and applications of Noise Mapping Techniques for Environmental Assessment in Hong Kong. This training programme is part of the development programme being implemented within the HKSAR Government for understanding and uses of GIS and its application on 3D EIA and Noise Mapping techniques.
    Deliverables
    - Training Manual and supporting documents
    - Five one-day training sessions to be conducted at CUHK. (SS04876)


  • Provision of Service for Mapping of Distribution and Extent of Mangroves in Hong Kong Using Satellite Image Analysis
  • FUNG Tung, YANG Limin (Institute of Space and Earth Information Science), MARAFA Lawal Mohammed
    13 March 2006
    Agriculture, Fisheries & Conservation Dept, HKSAR Government

    The objective of the study is to develop a strategy for the mapping of mangal in Hong Kong using satellite image analysis. This strategy will make use of advanced remote sensing digital image analysis techniques to map out the spatial distribution of mangroves. SPOT 5 multispectral data will be used for mangrove mapping at vegetation level along the coastline of Hong Kong. A more detailed mapping at species levels will be experimented with high resolution Quickbird data in the Deep Bay area. The study will also make recommendations on future application of new remote sensing technologies for mapping and updating of the distribution of mangroves in Hong Kong. (SS05737)


  • Revision of Board Land Use Updating Methodology
  • FUNG Tung, HUANG Bo, LEE Wai Ying Joanna
    15 January 2007
    Planning Department, HKSAR Government

    This study reviews the existing practice in the Planning Department, HKSAR for the production of broad land use plan and land utilization table. The existing land use classification system will be reviewed together with the remote sensing image classification method adopted. It is proposed to adopt the pixel shape index as additional information for image classification. The methodology will be tested using SPOT multispectral data for the entire Hong Kong territory. A selected area acquired by high resolution satellite data will also be experimented. Airphotos and GPS will be incorporated to test the usage of high resolution data for land use mapping. (SS06788)


  • Siting Locally Unwanted Land Uses: In Your Backyard or In Mine?
  • LAM Kin Che, FUNG Tung, LEE Wai Ying Joanna, LAI Pong Wai
    11 April 2006
    Public Policy Research Funding Scheme

    The siting of Locally Unwanted Land Uses (LULUs) is always a challenge because of many potential conflicts among stakeholders. Proponents often promote the need for them and their technical feasibility while opponents emphasize the associated economical, social and/or environmental risks. Pollution, environmental risks, reduction in property values and loss of amenity are the most common public concerns. Such conflicts are particularly severe in densely populated cities, such as Hong Kong, due to limited space. This research attempts develop a framework to elucidate the conflicts among key stakeholders, to analyze the cause of the problems and to propose solutions to resolve conflicts. The study will critically analyze contentious cases in Hong Kong, study how similar problems are resolved in other countries and identify strategies for conflict resolution, including public engagement and risk communication strategies. The findings will provide a framework for the authorities to manage public aspirations and reduce public resistance to the planning of LULUs. It can enhance certainty in project planning and hence save both time and cost. (SS05587)


  • The Use of Native Vegetation Community as Potential Tourist Resources and Cultural Heritage in the Fringes of Hong Kong Cityscape
  • MARAFA Lawal Mohammed, CHAU Kwai Cheong, FUNG Tung
    1 November 2000
    CUHK Research Committee Funding (Direct Grants)

    There is a great potential to promote and develop the eco-tourism potential of Hong Kong. About 70% of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is underdeveloped countryside land (Jim and Wong 1996). 41% of the total area of the region is already designated as country parks or areas dedicated to Sites of Special Scientific Interest. In an effort to further enhance the concepts of education, conservation and recreation, the Agriculture Fisheries and Conservation Department has identified 14 sites with potential to be designated as country parks (Planning, Environment and Lands Branch, 1993b). These will further enhance conservation of the countryside ecosystem and boost the resources for outdoor recreation and local tourism.
    Within the existing underdeveloped countrysides of Hong Kong, there exist crescents of native woodlands (Feng Shui) located at the periphery of many native villages particularly in the NT. Most of these areas, either within or outside the country parks, are areas of outstanding natural beauty, or sites of cultural, historical and scientific interset (Planning, Environment and Lands Branch, 1993a). These native villages and the feng shui vegetation that surrounds them date back to 100-200 years old. These natural resources and relics of cultural heritage are therefore valuable to the community as they provide good resources for environmental and ethical education while simultaneously promoting the virtues of conservation.
    This study will attempt to identify, classify and categorize the settlements crescented by the feng shui woods and the resources that will provide visual and aesthetic interest commonly found in these valuable cultural heritage that has a long history of environmental conservation ethics.
    Their understanding and effective categorization, will help to intensify interest in them and promote outdoor recreation and eco-tourism as a result of which will further elucidate the potentials of a more comprehensive and multidisciplinary research. (SS00883)


  • Utilizing GIS in School Geography: Education Software Development for Secondary Students in Hong Kong
  • FUNG Tung, LAM Chi Chung (Curriculum & Instruction)
    1 September 2005
    Quality Education Fund, HKSAR Government

    Geographic Information System has become a tool widely used in geographical studies. After the implementation of IT in education reform initiative, all secondary schools have had the hardware for utilizing GIS in the teaching and learning geography. Moreover, the teaching of GIS has been included in the proposed senior secondary curriculum to be implemented in 2008. The objectives of the project are (1) to develop GIS educational software for enhancing teaching and learning effectiveness in school geography; (2) to arouse students. awareness of the strengths of GIS in tackling geographical questions and (3) to inculcate in teachers and students positive attitudes towards using IT in geographical education. The software developed will help students to better understand on (a) the causes and solution to transport problems; (b) the influence of relief on rainfall and vegetation cover and (c) the flow of a river in Hong Kong. The effectiveness of the software will be assessed by means of questionnaires and workshops. (ED05858)



Research Publications


  • "Challenges of Managing Nimbyism in Hong Kong". (co-authored with LAM Kin Che, LEE Wai Ying Joanna and WOO Lai Yan) Paper presented in the International Conference on The Siting of Locally Unwanted Facilities: Challenges and Issues, organized by Centre for Environmental Policy and Resource Management, CUHK. Hong Kong, 2007.12.12.



  • "Changes in Participation in Leisure and Outdoor Recreation Activities Among Hong Kong People during the SARS Outbreak". (co-authored with MARAFA Lawal Mohammed) World Leisure vol.2. World Leisure and Recreation Association, 2004. p.38-47.



  • "From Paper Maps to Virtual Reality - a View from Hong Kong". (co-authored with LEUNG Yee and LIN Hui) The Cartographic Journal vol.41 no.3, Leeds, United Kingdom: The British Cartographic Society, 2004.12. p.261-264.
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL Periodical GA101 .C381 v.41-43, 2004-06; Available Online)



  • "Habitat Mapping in Hong Kong". (co-authored with WONG KWAN KIT) Paper presented in the Regional Conference of the International Geographical Union (IGU), organized by International Geographical Unions. Brisbane, Australia, 2006.07.03.



  • "Integration of Satellite Images and Census Data for Quality of Life Assessment in Hong Kong". (co-authored with IP Oi-Ching) Diversity of Urban Development and Urban Life. ed. by Inn Kim, Young-Woo Nam and Jae-Heon Choi, Seoul, South Korea: Seoul National University Press, 2002. p.210-225.



  • "Landscape Ecology of Feng Shui Woodlands in Hong Kong Using IKONOS Images and GIS". (co-authored with HO Ka Yip and MARAFA Lawal Mohammed) Paper presented in the The 30th Congress of the International Geographical Union, organized by International Geographical Union. Glasgow, United Kingdom, 2004.08.



  • "Mangrove Species Mapping using Quickbird Image in the Maipo Ramsar Site, Hong Kong". (co-authored with LEUNG Yee, WONG KWAN KIT and DAI M. W.) Paper presented in the Annual Conference of the Association of American Geographers. Boston, 2008.04.



  • "Mapping the Broad Land Use Pattern of Hong Kong". (co-authored with NG Sai Leung, KWAN Mei Chi May and YEUNG Shui Ling) Planning and Development: Journal of the Hong Kong Institute of Planners vol.17 no.2, Hong Kong SAR, 2001. p.41-50.
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL Periodical HT169.H6 P5 v.16-17, 2000-01)



  • "A Study Of Green Space And Its Changes In Hong Kong Using NDVI". (co-authored with SIU Wai Lok) Geographical & Environmental Modelling vol.5 no.2, Taylor & Francis, 2001. p.111-122.
    (CUHK Library Call No: Available Online)



  • "Subtropical Tree Recognition with Hyperspectral Data Analysis in Hong Kong". (co-authored with MA Fung Yan, SIU Wai Lok, LIN Hui and GONG Peng) Geocarto International vol.16 no.3, Hong Kong: Geocarto International Centre, 2001.09. p.25-34.
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL Periodical G70.4 .G46 v.16, 2001)



  • 《從植被指數看香港的環境及變化》,香港:香港中文大學,1997。
    (CUHK Library Call No: UL HK Studies HC470.3 .X527 1997 v.7)


* Name of external researcher
# Name of staff who has left the University